However, for some, recovery can sometimes by incomplete or symptoms can worsen over time. The effects and symptoms of MS vary greatly from patient to patient, but MS is typically classified into one of several common forms of MS. The cause of MS is not known but a range of environmental and genetic risk factors have been identified as playing a role.
These include:. Diagnosing MS can be difficult as patients exhibit similar symptoms to other diseases that affect the central nervous system.
As yet, there is no single test to diagnose MS. This will be done in conjunction with a clinical exam to review coordination, motor skills, vision, balance, sensory, language and emotional function. Other tests your doctor may order can include an eye examination by an ophthalmologist and a lumbar puncture spinal tap and electrophysiological tests to assess the conduction of nerve impulses.
Currently there is no cure for MS. There are two broad groups of treatment for people with MS. There is treatment to prevent relapses and slow disease progression or treatment to alleviate specific symptoms of MS. The types of drugs used depend on a number of factors, including the type of MS a person has. As with any medication, people with MS may experience drug-related side effects and these should be discussed with your treating physician. While there is no cure for MS, most people with MS live near-normal life spans. Several studies have suggested that a person with MS lives around seven years less than people without MS.
Most people with MS tend to die from the same conditions that people without MS tend to die from, such as cancer and heart disease. Most people with MS will not become severely disabled, but many experience pain, discomfort and other difficulties that can have an impact on quality of life.
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Medical research continues into the cause, treatments and a possible cure for MS. Since brain tissue is not generally available for research use during life, this means research must be done on post mortem tissue. People with MS in Australia can choose to donate their brain and other tissues of the nervous system for the purposes of MS research after their death. Researchers also need to study brain and spinal cord tissue to develop ways of repairing and preventing tissue damage.
For more information, please call , email msbrainbank msra. Click here for the latest Australian research papers on Multiple Sclerosis. Read more at Virtual Medical Centre. Its goal is to accelerate research into the cause, better treatments and prevention, with the aim of ultimately finding a cure for MS. MSA campaigns about important issues by working closely with its state organisations, national advocates and MS Research Australia, to ensure submissions and work is based on the latest evidence.
There are also several organisations in Australia that can provide information, resources and services. The Australian MS state societies offer a range of support services including counselling, assessment, employer liaison, work simplification strategies, support groups, respite accommodation and much more. Services vary across organisations and locations;. In this study we used the VED as an evaluation method, which allowed us to examine patients confined to a hospital bed, with a deficit in movement and postural changes This form of investigation has full agreement with the videodeglutogram or videofluoroscopy and is easier to execute, without exposing patients to radiation 21, These high rates agree with the studies from Miani et al.
The need to identify patients potentially prone to dysphagia has led some researchers to study the factors representing the performance of this task. The study on the influence of the disease's progression impact on swallowing performance showed that patients with the progressive forms SP and PP were in greater number of individuals with severe dysphagia compared to RR patients.
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The progressive forms, because of their more destructive and permanent behavior, cause sequelae that led to more severe restrictions on swallowing performance. The functions performed by the pyramidal system, cerebellum, brainstem, sensory system and areas related to mental activity change the dynamics of swallowing and can cause drastic changes in the performance of pharyngeal and laryngeal structures. The pyramidal function was the most frequently affected among the patients analyzed in this study and others; however there was no significant association with the occurrence of dysphagia.
In contrast, cerebellar, mental and brainstem functions showed significant levels of influence, a fact also noted by authors who conducted similar studies 4,5,8,10,, During motor tasks, the cerebellum operates in sequencing muscle activity, coordinating the agonist and antagonist muscles so there is no competition.
Moreover, it acts in the anticipation of movements to be performed by storing the programming needed for a given task. This storage extends throughout life, and whenever a similar task is performed, this programing is reused 32, In swallowing, the sequence of events related to muscle activity and contraction speed and force are important for proper food propulsion, and changes to cerebellar activity can cause great damage. Brainstem and mental functions also cause influences, though its occurrence was determined only in patients with severe dysphagia. The brainstem, owner of the nuclei that control swallowing, and the brain structures linked to mental function, predominantly located in the frontal lobe, responsible for initiative, judgment, attention, and cognition, clearly interfere with the performance of this activity and can cause significant misfits 32, The EDSS analysis also allows inferences on swallowing performance, and higher scores on this scale are associated with a greater impairment in this task 6,10,15, Likewise, in this study the mean EDSS score increased progressively as dysphagia worsened, being higher in patients with dysphagia classified as severe.
However, Abraham et al. In this study, the most intense manifestations of dysphagia were more frequent in patients with major neurological damage and higher EDSS scores. Swallowing disorders assessed by swallowing video endoscopy were frequent in this group of patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
Multiple Sclerosis Essay | Bartleby
Tilbery CP. Miller JR. In: Rowland LP. Merrit tratado de neurologia. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; Videofluoroscopic study of deglutition in patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. Laryngopharyngeal dysmotility in multiple sclerosis. Dysphagia Winter. Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis - prevalence and prognostic factors.
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Acta Neurol Scand. Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms. Eur Radiol. Dysphagia and multiple sclerosis. Int MS J. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. Clinical assessment of orofacial manifestations in patients with multiple sclerosis.
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J Oral Maxillofac Surg. Videofluoroscopy in the evaluation of dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. Dysphagia and multiple sclerosis: a study and discussion of its nature and impact. Clin Rehabil. Multiple sclerosis. Management of speech and swallowing in degenerative disease. Texas: Communication Skill Builders; Neurological impairment and disability status in outpatients with multiple sclerosis reporting dysphagia symptomatology.
J Neurol Rehabil.
Dysphagia and nutritional status in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. Comfort care in severely disabled multiple sclerosis patients. J Neurol Sci. Videofluoroscopy and swallowing studies for neurologic disease: a primer. Evaluation of swallowing disorders in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci.
Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: a new procedure. Manual de cuidados do paciente com disfagia. A functional diagnosis of dysphagia using videoendoscopy.
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Ear Nose Throat J. Current evaluation and treatment of patients with swallowing disorders. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Early assessments of dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. Endoscopic and videofluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing and aspiration.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol.